# Stochastic calculus stock market

A stochastic differential equation SDE is a differential equation in which one or more of the terms is a stochastic processresulting in a solution which is also a stochastic process. SDEs are used to model various phenomena such as unstable stock prices or physical systems subject to thermal fluctuations. Typically, SDEs contain a variable which represents random white noise calculated as the derivative of Brownian motion or the Wiener process.

However, other types of random behaviour are possible, such as jump processes. Early work on SDEs was done to describe Brownian motion in Einstein 's famous paperand at the same time by Smoluchowski. However, one of the earlier works related to Brownian motion is credited to Bachelier in his thesis 'Theory of Speculation'. This work was followed upon by Langevin.

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The most common form of SDEs in the literature is an ordinary differential equation with the right hand side perturbed by a term dependent on a white noise variable.

In most cases, SDEs are understood as continuous time limit of the corresponding stochastic difference equations. This understanding of SDEs is ambiguous and must be complemented by an "interpretation".

An alternative view on SDEs is the stochastic flow of diffeomorphisms.

This understanding is unambiguous and corresponds to the Stratonovich version of the continuous time limit of stochastic difference equations. Associated with SDEs is the Smoluchowski equation or the Fokker-Planck equationan equation describing the time evolution of probability distribution functions. The generalization of the Fokker-Planck evolution to temporal evolution of differential forms is provided by the concept of stochastic evolution operator.

In physical science, there is an ambiguity in the usage of the term "Langevin SDEs". While Langevin SDEs can be of a more general formthis term typically refers to a narrow class of SDEs with gradient flow vector fields. From the physical point of view, however, this class of SDEs is not very interesting because it never exhibits spontaneous breakdown of topological supersymmetry, i.

Brownian motion or the Wiener process was discovered to be exceptionally complex mathematically. The Wiener process is almost surely nowhere differentiable; thus, it requires its own rules of calculus. Each of the two has advantages and disadvantages, and newcomers are often confused whether the one is more appropriate than the other in a given situation.

Still, one must be careful which calculus to use when the SDE is initially written down. Numerical solution of stochastic differential equations and especially stochastic partial differential equations is a young field relatively speaking.

Almost all algorithms that are used for the solution of ordinary differential equations will work very poorly for SDEs, having very poor numerical convergence. Methods include *stochastic calculus stock market* Euler—Maruyama methodMilstein method and Runge—Kutta method SDE.

In physics, SDEs have widest applicability ranging from molecular dynamics to neurodynamics and to the dynamics of astrophysical objects. More specifically, SDEs describe all dynamical systems, in which quantum effects are either unimportant or can be taken into account as perturbations. SDEs can be viewed as a generalization of the dynamical systems theory to models with noise. This is an important generalization because real systems cannot be completely isolated from their environments and for this reason always experience external stochastic influence.

There are standard techniques for transforming higher-order equations into several coupled first-order equations by introducing new unknowns. Therefore, the following is the most general class of SDEs:.

For a fixed configuration of noise, SDE has a unique solution differentiable with respect to the initial condition. In this sense, an SDE is not a uniquely defined entity when noise is multiplicative and when the SDE is understood as a continuous time limit of a stochastic difference equation. Nevertheless, when SDE is viewed as a continuous-time stochastic flow of diffeomorphisms, it is a uniquely defined mathematical object that corresponds to Stratonovich approach to a continuous time limit of a stochastic difference equation.

In physics, the main method of solution is to find the probability distribution function as a function of time using the equivalent Fokker-Planck equation FPE.

The Fokker-Planck equation is a deterministic partial differential equation. Alternatively numerical solutions can be obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. The notation used in probability theory and in many applications of probability theory, for instance mathematical finance is slightly different. It yougov make money also the notation used in publications on numerical methods for solving stochastic differential equations.

The mathematical formulation treats this complication with less ambiguity than the physics formulation. This equation should be interpreted as an informal way of expressing the corresponding integral equation. This is binary options forex peace army day trading because the increments of a Wiener process are independent and normally distributed.

The stochastic process X jquery set default option value is called a expired call options tax treatment processand satisfies the Markov property.

The formal interpretation of an SDE is given in terms of what constitutes a solution to the SDE.

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There are two main definitions of a solution to an SDE, a strong solution and a weak solution. Both require the existence of a process X t that solves the integral equation version of the SDE. A weak solution consists of a probability space and a process that satisfies the integral equation, while a strong solution is a process that satisfies the equation and is defined on a given probability space.

An important example is the equation for geometric Brownian motion.

When the coefficients depends only on present and past values of Xthe defining equation is called a stochastic delay differential equation. As with deterministic ordinary and partial differential equations, it is important to know whether a given SDE has a solution, and whether or not it is unique. Its general solution is. In supersymmetric theory of SDEs, stochastic dynamics is defined via stochastic evolution operator acting on the differential forms on the phase space of the model.

In this exact formulation of stochastic dynamics, all SDEs possess topological supersymmetry which represents the preservation of the continuity of the phase space by continuous time flow. The spontaneous breakdown of this supersymmetry is the mathematical essence of the ubiquitous dynamical phenomenon known across disciplines as chaosturbulenceself-organized criticality etc.

The theory also offers a resolution of the Ito-Stratonovich dilemma in favor of Stratonovich approach. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Navier—Stokes differential equations used to simulate airflow around an obstruction. Ordinary Partial Differential-algebraic Integro-differential Fractional Linear Non-linear.

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Difference discrete analogue Stochastic Delay. Phase portrait Phase space. Numerical integration Dirac delta function.

Supersymmetric theory of stochastic dynamics. Differentiability of solutions with respect to initial conditions and parameters". Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications.

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Scope Natural sciences Engineering Astronomy Physics Chemistry Biology Geology. Continuum mechanics Chaos theory Dynamical systems. Types Ordinary Partial Differential-algebraic Integro-differential Fractional Linear Non-linear.

Relation to processes Difference discrete analogue Stochastic Delay.